Chapter 7C. Markings
Section 7C.01 Functions
Markings have definite and important functions in a proper scheme
of school area traffic control. In some cases, they are used to
supplement the regulations or warnings provided by other devices,
such as traffic signs or signals. In other instances, they are used
alone and produce results that cannot be obtained by the use of
any other device. In such cases they serve as an effective means
of conveying certain regulations, guidance, and warnings that could
not otherwise be made clearly understandable.
Pavement markings have limitations. They might
be obliterated by snow, might not be clearly visible when wet, and
might not be durable when subjected to heavy traffic. In spite of
these limitations, they have the advantage, under favorable conditions,
of conveying warnings or information to the road user without diverting
attention from the road.
Section 7C.02 Standardization
Each standard marking shall be used only to convey the meaning prescribed
for it in this Manual.
Section 7C.03 Crosswalk
Crosswalk markings provide guidance for pedestrians who are crossing
roadways by defining and delineating paths on approaches to and
within signalized intersections, and on approaches to other intersections
where traffic stops.
Crosswalk markings also serve to alert road users
of a pedestrian crossing point across roadways not controlled by
highway traffic signals or STOP signs.
At nonintersection locations, crosswalk markings
legally establish the crosswalk.
When transverse crosswalk lines are used, they shall be solid white,
marking both edges of the crosswalk, except as noted in the Option.
They shall be not less than 150 mm (6 in) nor greater than 600 mm
(24 in) in width.
If transverse lines are used to mark a crosswalk, the gap between
the lines should not be less than 1.8 m (6 ft). If diagonal or longitudinal
lines are used without transverse lines to mark a crosswalk, the
crosswalk should not be less than 1.8 m (6 ft) wide.
Crosswalk lines on both sides of the crosswalk
should extend across the full width of pavement or to the edge of
the intersecting crosswalk to discourage diagonal walking between
Crosswalks should be marked at all intersections
on established routes to school where there is substantial conflict
between motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrian movements, where students
are encouraged to cross between intersections, or where students
would not otherwise recognize the proper place to cross (see Figure
Crosswalk lines should not be used indiscriminately.
An engineering study should be performed before they are installed
at locations away from traffic control signals or STOP signs.
For added visibility, the area of the crosswalk may be marked with
white diagonal lines at a 45-degree angle to the line of the crosswalk
or with white longitudinal lines parallel to traffic flow. When
diagonal or longitudinal lines are used to mark a crosswalk, the
transverse crosswalk lines may be omitted.
The diagonal or longitudinal lines should be 300 to 600 mm (12 to
24 in) wide and spaced 300 to 1500 mm (12 to 60 in) apart. The spacing
design should avoid the wheel paths.
Section 7C.04 Stop
and Yield Lines
If used, stop lines shall consist of solid white lines extending
across approach lanes to indicate the point at which the stop is
intended or required to be made.
If used, yield lines (see Figure
3B-14) shall consist of a row of solid white isosceles triangles
pointing toward approaching vehicles extending across approach lanes
to indicate the point at which the yield is intended or required
to be made.
Stop lines should be 300 to 600 mm (12 to 24 in) wide.
Stop lines should be used to indicate the point
behind which vehicles are required to stop, in compliance with a
STOP (R1-1) sign (see Figure
2B-1), traffic control signal, or some other traffic control
The individual triangles comprising the yield
line should have a base of 300 to 600 mm (12 to 24 in) wide and
a height equal to 1.5 times the base. The space between the triangles
should be 75 to 300 mm (3 to 12 in).
Yield lines may be used to indicate the point behind which
vehicles are required to yield in compliance with a YIELD (R1-2)
sign (see Figure 2B-1) or a Yield Here to Pedestrians (R1-5 or R1-5a)
sign (see Figure 2B-2).
If used, stop and yield lines should be placed a minimum of 1.2
m (4 ft) in advance of and parallel to the nearest crosswalk line
at controlled intersections, except for yield lines at roundabout
intersections as provided for in Section
3B.24 and at midblock crosswalks. In the absence of a marked
crosswalk, the stop line or yield line should be placed at the desired
stopping or yielding point, but should be placed no more than 9
m (30 ft) nor less than 1.2 m (4 ft) from the nearest edge of the
intersecting traveled way. Stop lines should be placed to allow
sufficient sight distance to all other approaches to an intersection.
If used at an unsignalized midblock crosswalk,
yield lines should be placed adjacent to the Yield Here to Pedestrians
sign located 6.1 to 15 m (20 to 50 ft) in advance of the nearest
crosswalk line, and parking should be prohibited in the area between
the yield line and the crosswalk (see Figure
Stop lines at midblock signalized locations should
be placed at least 12 m (40 ft) in advance of the nearest signal
indication (see Section
Drivers who yield too close to crosswalks on multi-lane approaches
place pedestrians at risk by blocking other drivers' views of pedestrians,
and pedestrians' views of other vehicles.
Section 7C.05 Curb
Markings for Parking Regulations
Signs shall be used with curb markings in those areas where curb
markings are frequently obliterated by snow and ice accumulation,
unless the no parking zone is controlled by statute or local ordinance.
When curb markings are used without signs to convey parking regulations,
a legible word marking regarding the regulation (such as "No
Parking" or "No Standing") should be placed on the
Local highway agencies may prescribe special colors for curb markings
to supplement standard signs for parking regulation.
Since yellow and white curb markings are frequently used for curb
delineation and visibility, it is advisable to establish parking
regulations through the installation of standard signs (see Sections
Section 7C.06 Pavement
Word and Symbol Markings
Word and symbol markings on the pavement are used for the purpose
of guiding, warning, or regulating traffic. Symbol messages are
preferable to word messages.
Word and symbol markings shall be white. Word and symbol markings
shall not be used for mandatory messages except in support of standard
Letters and numerals should be 1.8 m (6 ft) or more in height. All
letters, numerals, and symbols should be in accordance with the
Federal Highway Administration's "Standard Highway Signs"
book (see Section 1A.11).
Word and symbol markings should not exceed three
lines of information.
If a pavement marking word message consists of
more than one line of information, it should read in the direction
of travel. The first word of the message should be nearest to the
The longitudinal space between word or symbol
message markings, including arrow markings, should be at least four
times the height of the characters for low speed roads, but not
more than ten times the height of the characters under any conditions.
The number of different word and symbol markings
used should be minimized to provide effective guidance and avoid
Except as noted in the Option below, pavement
word and symbol markings should be no more than one lane in width.
The SCHOOL word marking may extend to the width of two approach
lanes (see Figure 7C-1).
If the two-lane SCHOOL word marking is used, the letters should
be 3 m (10 ft) or more in height.
7C-1 Two-Lane Pavement Marking of “SCHOOL”
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