Chapter 6D. Pedestrian And Worker Safety
Section 6D.01 Pedestrian Considerations
Whenever the acronym "TTC" is used in this Chapter, it
refers to "temporary traffic control."
The needs and control of all road users (motorists, bicyclists,
and pedestrians within the highway, including persons with disabilities
in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA),
Title II, Paragragh 35.130) through a TTC zone shall be an essential
part of highway construction, utility work, maintenance operations,
and the management of traffic incidents.
A wide range of pedestrians might be affected by TTC zones, including
the young, elderly, and people with disabilities such as hearing,
visual, or mobility. These pedestrians need a clearly delineated
and usable travel path. Considerations for pedestrians with disabilites
are addressed in Section 6D.02.
The most desirable way to provide information to
pedestrians with visual disabilites that is equivalent to visual
signage for notification of sidewalk closures is a speech message
provided by an audible information device. Devices that provide
speech messages in response to passive pedestrian actuation are
the most desirable. Other devices that continously emit a message,
or that emit a message in response to use of a pushbutton, are also
acceptable. Signage information can also be transmitted to personal
receivers, but currently such receivers are not likely to be carried
or used by pedestrians with visual disabilities in TTC zones. Audible
information devices might not be needed if detectable channelizing
devices make an alternate route of travel evident to pedestrians
with visual disabilites.
If a pushbutton is used to provide equivalent TTC information to
pedestrians with visual disabilities, the pushbutton should be equipped
with a locator tone to notify pedestrians with visual disabilities
that a special accomodation is available, and to help them locate
The various TTC provisions for pedestrian and worker safety set
forth in Part 6 shall be applied by
knowledgeable (for example, trained and/or certified) persons after
appropriate evaluation and engineering judgment.
Advance notification of sidewalk closures shall
be provided to the maintaining agency. Where pedestrians with visual
disabilities normally use the closed sidewalk, a barrier that is
detectable by a person with a visual disability traveling with the
aid of a long cane shall be placed across the full width of a closed
It must be recognized that pedestrians are reluctant to retrace
their steps to a prior intersection for a crossing or to add distance
or out-of-the-way travel to a destination.
Adequate provisions should be made for persons with disabilities
as determined by an engineering study or by engineering judgment.
Because printed signs and surface delineation are not usable by
pedestrians with visual disabilities, blocked routes, alternate
crossings, and sign and signal information should be communicated
to pedestrians with visual disabilities by providing audible information
devices, accessible pedestrian signals, and barriers and channelizing
devices that are detectable to pedestrians traveling with the aid
of a long cane or who have low vision.
The following three items should be considered
when planning for pedestrians in TTC zones:
- Pedestrians should not be led into conflicts with work site
vehicles, equipment, and operations.
- Pedestrians should not be led into conflicts with vehicles moving
through or around the work site.
- Pedestrians should be provided with a reasonably safe, convenient,
and accessible path that replicates as nearly as practical the
most desirable characteristics of the existing sidewalk(s) or
footpath(s). Where pedestrians who have visual disabilities encounter
work sites that require them to cross the roadway to find an accessible
route, instructions should be provided using an audible information
device. Accessible pedestrian signals (see Section
4E.06) with accessible pedestrian detectors (see Section
4E.09) might be needed to enable pedestrians with visual disabilties
to cross wide or heavily traveled roadways.
A pedestrian route should not be severed and/or
moved for nonconstruction activities such as parking for vehicles
Consideration should be made to separate pedestrian
movements from both work site activity and vehicular traffic. Unless
a reasonably safe route that does not involve crossing the roadway
can be provided, pedestrians should be appropriately directed with
advance signing that encourages them to cross to the opposite side
of the roadway. In urban and suburban areas with high vehicular
traffic volumes, these signs should be placed at intersections (rather
than midblock locations) so that pedestrians are not confronted
with midblock work sites that will induce them to attempt skirting
the work site or making a midblock crossing.
show typical TTC device usage and techniques for pedestrian movement
through work zones.
When pedestrian movement through or around a work site is necessary,
a separate usable footpath should be provided. If the previous pedestrian
facility was accessible to pedestrians with disabilities, the footpath
provided during temporary traffic control should also be accessible.
There should not be any abrupt changes in grade or terrain that
could cause a tripping hazard or could be a barrier to wheelchair
use. Barriers and channelizing devices should be detectable to pedestrians
who have visual disabilities (see Section
Whenever it is feasible, closing off the work site from pedestrian
intrusion may be preferable to channelizing pedestrian traffic along
the site with TTC devices.
Maintaining a detectable, channelized pedestrian route is much more
useful to pedestrians who have visual disabilities than closing
a walkway and providing audible directions to an alternate route
involving additional crossings and a return to the original route.
Braille is not useful in conveying such information because it is
difficult to find. Audible instructions might be provided, but the
extra distance and additional street crossings might add complexity
to a trip.
Fencing should not create sight distance restrictions for road users.
Fences should not be constructed of materials that would be hazardous
if impacted by vehicles.
Wooden railing, fencing, and similar systems placed
immediately adjacent to motor vehicle traffic should not be used
as substitutes for crashworthy temporary traffic barriers.
TTC devices used to delineate a TTC zone pedestrian walkway shall
be crashworthy and, when struck by vehicles, present a minimum threat
to pedestrians, workers, and occupants of impacting vehicles.
Ballast for TTC devices should be kept to the minimum amount needed
and should be mounted low to prevent penetration of the vehicle
Movement by work vehicles and equipment across
designated pedestrian paths should be minimized and, when necessary,
should be controlled by flaggers or TTC. Staging or stopping of
work vehicles or equipment along the side of pedestrian paths should
be avoided, since it encourages movement of workers, equipment,
and materials across the pedestrian path.
Access to the work space by workers and equipment
across pedestrian walkways should be minimized because the access
often creates unacceptable changes in grade, and rough or muddy
terrain, and pedestrians will tend to avoid these areas by attempting
nonintersection crossings where no curb ramps are available.
A canopied walkway may be used to protect pedestrians from falling
debris, and to provide a covered passage for pedestrians.
Covered walkways should be sturdily constructed and adequately lighted
for nighttime use.
When pedestrian and vehicle paths are rerouted
to a closer proximity to each other, consideration should be given
to separating them by a temporary traffic barrier.
If a temporary traffic barrier is used to shield
pedestrians, it should be designed to accommodate site conditions.
Depending on the possible vehicular speed and angle of impact, temporary
traffic barriers might deflect upon impact by an errant vehicle.
Guidance for locating and designing temporary traffic barriers can
be found in Chapter 9 of AASHTO’s "Roadside Design Guide"
(see Section 1A.11).
Short intermittent segments of temporary traffic barrier shall not
be used because they nullify the containment and redirective capabilities
of the temporary traffic barrier, increase the potential for serious
injury both to vehicle occupants and pedestrians, and encourage
the presence of blunt, leading ends. All upstream leading ends that
are present shall be appropriately flared or protected with properly
installed and maintained crashworthy cushions. Adjacent temporary
traffic barrier segments shall be properly connected in order to
provide the overall strength required for the temporary traffic
barrier to perform properly.
Normal vertical curbing shall not be used as a
substitute for temporary traffic barriers when temporary traffic
barriers are clearly needed.
Temporary traffic barriers or longitudinal channelizing devices
may be used to discourage pedestrians from unauthorized movements
into the work space. They may also be used to inhibit conflicts
with vehicular traffic by minimizing the possibility of midblock
A major concern for pedestrians is urban and suburban building construction
encroaching onto the contiguous sidewalks, which forces pedestrians
off the curb into direct conflict with moving vehicles.
If a significant potential exists for vehicle incursions into the
pedestrian path, pedestrians should be rerouted or temporary traffic
barriers should be installed.
TTC devices, jersey barriers, and wood or chainlink fencing with
a continuous detectable edging can satisfactorily delineate a pedestrian
Tape, rope, or plastic chain strung between devices are not detectable,
do not comply with the design standards in the “Americans
with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and
Facilities (ADAAG)” (see Section 1A.11), and should not be
used as a control for pedestrian movements.
The extent of pedestrian needs should be determined
through engineering judgment for each TTC zone situation. In general,
pedestrian routes should be preserved in urban and commercial suburban
areas. Alternative routing should be discouraged.
The highway agency in charge of the TTC zone should
regularly inspect the activity area so that effective pedestrian
TTC is maintained.
Section 6D.02 Accessibility
Additional information on the design and construction of accessible
temporary facilities is found in publications listed in Section
1A.11 (see Documents 10 and 29 through 31).
The extent of pedestrian needs should be determined through engineering
judgment or by the individual responsible for each TTC zone situation.
This individual should be aware that the absence of a continuous
pathway, including curb ramps and other accessible features, might
preclude the use of the facility by pedestrians with disabilites.
When existing pedestrian facilities are disrupted, closed, or relocated
in a TTC zone, the temporary facilities shall be detectable and
include accessibility features consistent with the features present
in the existing pedestrian facility.
To accomodate the needs of pedestrians, including those with disabilites,
the following considerations should be addressed when temporary
pedestrian pathways in TTC zones are designed or modified:
- Provisions for continuity of accessible paths for pedestrians
should be incorporated into the TTC process. Pedestrians should
be provided with a reasonably safe, convenient, and accessible
path that replicates as much as practical the desirable characteristics
of the existing pedestrian facilities.
- Access to temporary transit stops should be provided.
- Blocked routes, alternate crossings, and sign and signal information
should be communicated to pedestrians with visual disablities
by providing devices such as audible information devices, accessible
pedestrian signals, or barriers and channelizing devices that
are detectable to the pedestrians traveling with the aid of a
long cane or who have low vision. Where pedestrian traffic is
detoured to a TTC signal, engineering judgment should be used
to determine if pedestrian signals or accessible pedestrian signals
should be considered for crossings along an alternate route.
- When channelization is used to delineate a pedestrian pathway,
a continous detectable edging should be provided throughout the
length of the facility such that pedestrians using a long cane
can follow it. These detectable edgings should adhere to the provisions
of Section 6F.68.
- A smooth, continuous hard surface should be provided throughout
the entire length of the temporary pedestrian facility. There
should be no curbs or abrupt changes in grade or terrain that
could cause tripping or be a barrier to wheelchair use. The geometry
and alignment of the facility should meet the applicable requirements
of the "Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibly Guidelines
for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG)" (see Section 1A.11).
- The width of the existing pedestrian facility should be provided
for the temporary facility if practical. Traffic control devices
and other construction materials and features should not intrude
into the usable width of the sidewalk, temporary pathway, or other
pedestrian facility. When it is not possible to maintain a minimum
width of 1500 mm (60 in) thorughout the entire length of the pedestrian
pathway, a 1500 x 1500 mm (60 x 60 in) passing space should be
provided at least every 60 m (200 ft), to allow individuals in
wheelchairs to pass.
- Signs and other devices mounted lower that 2.1m (7 ft) above
the temporary pedestrian pathway should not project more than
100 mm (4 in) into accessible pedestrian facilities.
Section 6D.03 Worker
Equally as important as the safety of road users traveling through
the TTC zone is the safety of workers. TTC zones present temporary
and constantly changing conditions that are unexpected by the road
user. This creates an even higher degree of vulnerability for workers
on or near the roadway.
Maintaining TTC zones with road user flow inhibited
as little as possible, and using TTC devices that get the road user's
attention and provide positive direction are of particular importance.
Likewise, equipment and vehicles moving within the activity area
create a risk to workers on foot. When possible, the separation
of moving equipment and construction vehicles from workers on foot
provides the operator of these vehicles with a greater separation
clearance and improved sight lines to minimize exposure to the hazards
of moving vehicles and equipment.
The following are the key elements of worker safety and TTC management
that should be considered to improve worker safety:
- Training—all workers should be trained on how to work
next to motor vehicle traffic in a way that minimizes their vulnerability.
Workers having specific TTC responsibilities should be trained
in TTC techniques, device usage, and placement.
- Worker Safety Apparel—all workers exposed to the risks
of moving roadway traffic or construction equipment should wear
high-visibility safety apparel meeting the requirements of ISEA
“American National Standard for High-Visibility Safety Apparel”
(see Section 1A.11), or equivalent revisions, and labeled as ANSI
107-1999 standard performance for Class 1, 2, or 3 risk exposure.
A competent person designated by the employer to be responsible
for the worker safety plan within the activity area of the job
site should make the selection of the appropriate class of garment.
- Temporary Traffic Barriers—temporary traffic barriers
should be placed along the work space depending on factors such
as lateral clearance of workers from adjacent traffic, speed of
traffic, duration and type of operations, time of day, and volume
- Speed Reduction—reducing the speed of vehicular traffic,
mainly through regulatory speed zoning, funneling, lane reduction,
or the use of uniformed law enforcement officers, or flaggers,
should be considered.
- Activity Area—planning the internal work activity area
to minimize backing-up maneuvers of construction vehicles should
be considered to minimize the exposure to risk.
- Worker Safety Planning—a competent person designated by
the employer should conduct a basic hazard assessment for the
work site and job classifications required in the activity area.
This safety professional should determine whether engineering,
administrative, or personal protection measures should be implemented.
This plan should be in accordance with the Occupational Safety
and Health Act of 1970, as amended, “General Duty Clause”
Section 5(a)(1) - Public Law 91-596, 84 Stat. 1590, December 29,
1970, as amended, and with the requirement to assess worker risk
exposures for each job site and job classification, as per 29
CFR 1926.20 (b)(2) of “Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Regulations, General Safety and Health Provisions" (see Section
The following are additional elements of TTC management that may
be considered to improve worker safety:
- Shadow Vehicle—in the case of mobile and constantly moving
operations, such as pothole patching and striping operations,
a shadow vehicle, equipped with appropriate lights and warning
signs, may be used to protect the workers from impacts by errant
vehicles. The shadow vehicle may be equipped with a rear-mounted
- Road Closure—if alternate routes are available to handle
road users, the road may be closed temporarily. This may also
facilitate project completion and thus further reduce worker vulnerability.
- Law Enforcement Use—in highly vulnerable work situations,
particularly those of relatively short duration, law enforcement
units may be stationed to heighten the awareness of passing vehicular
traffic and to improve safety through the TTC zone.
- Lighting—for nighttime work, the TTC zone and approaches
may be lighted.
- Special Devices—these include rumble strips, changeable
message signs, hazard identification beacons, flags, and warning
lights. Intrusion warning devices may be used to alert workers
to the approach of errant vehicles.
Judicious use of the special devices described in Item E above might
be helpful for certain difficult TTC situations, but misuse or overuse
of special devices or techniques might lessen their effectiveness.
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